In order to complete a Secondary PhD Field in German, graduate students take a minimum of FOUR courses, at least TWO of which are on the 200 level, “Primarily for Graduates,” and the other TWO of which may be either on the 200 or the 100 level (“For Undergraduates and Graduates”). Students plan a coherent program of courses, complementing their primary course of study, in consultation with the Director of Graduate Studies, who advises Secondary Field students. 100-level courses must be upgraded for graduate credit, which usually entails writing a longer paper or undertaking some other appropriate additional work to be arranged with the course instructor. With the approval of the Director of Graduate Studies, ONE of the four courses may be taken in a related discipline if it is a course that would normally provide degree credit for a PhD candidate in Germanic Languages and Literatures. At least one of the four courses must yield a 20–25 page research paper to be approved by the course instructor and the Director of Graduate Studies. Neither SAT/UNSAT nor audited courses count toward the Secondary PhD Field. Readings for courses in the Department are customarily in German; thus German reading knowledge is a prerequisite. The Department offers an average of 10 courses per academic year on the 100 and 200 levels, all of which are open to Secondary PhD Field students.